シンプルなリポジトリ API#

利用可能なパッケージバージョンを問い合わせたり、インデックスサーバからパッケージを取り出したりするためのインターフェースは、二つの形式: HTML と JSON でもたらされます。

Base HTML API#

A repository that implements the simple API is defined by its base URL, this is the top level URL that all additional URLs are below. The API is named the "simple" repository due to the fact that PyPI's base URL is https://pypi.org/simple/.

注釈

All subsequent URLs in this document will be relative to this base URL (so given PyPI's URL, a URL of /foo/ would be https://pypi.org/simple/foo/.

Within a repository, the root URL (/ for this spec which represents the base URL) MUST be a valid HTML5 page with a single anchor element per project in the repository. The text of the anchor tag MUST be the name of the project and the href attribute MUST link to the URL for that particular project. As an example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <body>
    <a href="/frob/">frob</a>
    <a href="/spamspamspam/">spamspamspam</a>
  </body>
</html>

Below the root URL is another URL for each individual project contained within a repository. The format of this URL is /<project>/ where the <project> is replaced by the normalized name for that project, so a project named "HolyGrail" would have a URL like /holygrail/. This URL must respond with a valid HTML5 page with a single anchor element per file for the project. The href attribute MUST be a URL that links to the location of the file for download, and the text of the anchor tag MUST match the final path component (the filename) of the URL. The URL SHOULD include a hash in the form of a URL fragment with the following syntax: #<hashname>=<hashvalue>, where <hashname> is the lowercase name of the hash function (such as sha256) and <hashvalue> is the hex encoded digest.

In addition to the above, the following constraints are placed on the API:

  • All URLs which respond with an HTML5 page MUST end with a / and the repository SHOULD redirect the URLs without a / to add a / to the end.

  • URLs may be either absolute or relative as long as they point to the correct location.

  • There are no constraints on where the files must be hosted relative to the repository.

  • There may be any other HTML elements on the API pages as long as the required anchor elements exist.

  • Repositories MAY redirect unnormalized URLs to the canonical normalized URL (e.g. /Foobar/ may redirect to /foobar/), however clients MUST NOT rely on this redirection and MUST request the normalized URL.

  • Repositories SHOULD choose a hash function from one of the ones guaranteed to be available via the hashlib module in the Python standard library (currently md5, sha1, sha224, sha256, sha384, sha512). The current recommendation is to use sha256.

  • If there is a GPG signature for a particular distribution file it MUST live alongside that file with the same name with a .asc appended to it. So if the file /packages/HolyGrail-1.0.tar.gz existed and had an associated signature, the signature would be located at /packages/HolyGrail-1.0.tar.gz.asc.

  • A repository MAY include a data-gpg-sig attribute on a file link with a value of either true or false to indicate whether or not there is a GPG signature. Repositories that do this SHOULD include it on every link.

  • A repository MAY include a data-requires-python attribute on a file link. This exposes the Requires-Python metadata field for the corresponding release. Where this is present, installer tools SHOULD ignore the download when installing to a Python version that doesn't satisfy the requirement. For example:

    <a href="..." data-requires-python="&gt;=3">...</a>
    

    In the attribute value, < and > have to be HTML encoded as &lt; and &gt;, respectively.

Normalized Names#

This spec references the concept of a "normalized" project name. As per the name normalization specification the only valid characters in a name are the ASCII alphabet, ASCII numbers, ., -, and _. The name should be lowercased with all runs of the characters ., -, or _ replaced with a single - character. This can be implemented in Python with the re module:

import re

def normalize(name):
    return re.sub(r"[-_.]+", "-", name).lower()

Adding "Yank" Support to the Simple API#

Links in the simple repository MAY have a data-yanked attribute which may have no value, or may have an arbitrary string as a value. The presence of a data-yanked attribute SHOULD be interpreted as indicating that the file pointed to by this particular link has been "Yanked", and should not generally be selected by an installer, except under specific scenarios.

The value of the data-yanked attribute, if present, is an arbitrary string that represents the reason for why the file has been yanked. Tools that process the simple repository API MAY surface this string to end users.

The yanked attribute is not immutable once set, and may be rescinded in the future (and once rescinded, may be reset as well). Thus API users MUST be able to cope with a yanked file being "unyanked" (and even yanked again).

Installers#

The desirable experience for users is that once a file is yanked, when a human being is currently trying to directly install a yanked file, that it fails as if that file had been deleted. However, when a human did that awhile ago, and now a computer is just continuing to mechanically follow the original order to install the now yanked file, then it acts as if it had not been yanked.

An installer MUST ignore yanked releases, if the selection constraints can be satisfied with a non-yanked version, and MAY refuse to use a yanked release even if it means that the request cannot be satisfied at all. An implementation SHOULD choose a policy that follows the spirit of the intention above, and that prevents "new" dependencies on yanked releases/files.

What this means is left up to the specific installer, to decide how to best fit into the overall usage of their installer. However, there are two suggested approaches to take:

  1. Yanked files are always ignored, unless they are the only file that matches a version specifier that "pins" to an exact version using either == (without any modifiers that make it a range, such as .*) or ===. Matching this version specifier should otherwise be done as per the version specifiers specification for things like local versions, zero padding, etc.

  2. Yanked files are always ignored, unless they are the only file that matches what a lock file (such as Pipfile.lock or poetry.lock) specifies to be installed. In this case, a yanked file SHOULD not be used when creating or updating a lock file from some input file or command.

Regardless of the specific strategy that an installer chooses for deciding when to install yanked files, an installer SHOULD emit a warning when it does decide to install a yanked file. That warning MAY utilize the value of the data-yanked attribute (if it has a value) to provide more specific feedback to the user about why that file had been yanked.

Mirrors#

Mirrors can generally treat yanked files one of two ways:

  1. They may choose to omit them from their simple repository API completely, providing a view over the repository that shows only "active", unyanked files.

  2. They may choose to include yanked files, and additionally mirror the data-yanked attribute as well.

Mirrors MUST NOT mirror a yanked file without also mirroring the data-yanked attribute for it.

Versioning PyPI's Simple API#

This spec proposes the inclusion of a meta tag on the responses of every successful request to a simple API page, which contains a name attribute of "pypi:repository-version", and a content that is a version specifiers specification compatible version number, which is further constrained to ONLY be Major.Minor, and none of the additional features supported by the version specifiers specification.

This would end up looking like:

<meta name="pypi:repository-version" content="1.0">

When interpreting the repository version:

  • Incrementing the major version is used to signal a backwards incompatible change such that existing clients would no longer be expected to be able to meaningfully use the API.

  • Incrementing the minor version is used to signal a backwards compatible change such that existing clients would still be expected to be able to meaningfully use the API.

It is left up to the discretion of any future specs as to what specifically constitutes a backwards incompatible vs compatible change beyond the broad suggestion that existing clients will be able to "meaningfully" continue to use the API, and can include adding, modifying, or removing existing features.

It is expectation of this spec that the major version will never be incremented, and any future major API evolutions would utilize a different mechanism for API evolution. However the major version is included to disambiguate with future versions (e.g. a hypothetical simple api v2 that lived at /v2/, but which would be confusing if the repository-version was set to a version >= 2).

This spec sets the current API version to "1.0", and expects that future specs that further evolve the simple API will increment the minor version number.

Clients#

Clients interacting with the simple API SHOULD introspect each response for the repository version, and if that data does not exist MUST assume that it is version 1.0.

When encountering a major version greater than expected, clients MUST hard fail with an appropriate error message for the user.

When encountering a minor version greater than expected, clients SHOULD warn users with an appropriate message.

Clients MAY still continue to use feature detection in order to determine what features a repository uses.

Serve Distribution Metadata in the Simple Repository API#

In a simple repository's project page, each anchor tag pointing to a distribution MAY have a data-dist-info-metadata attribute. The presence of the attribute indicates the distribution represented by the anchor tag MUST contain a Core Metadata file that will not be modified when the distribution is processed and/or installed.

If a data-dist-info-metadata attribute is present, the repository MUST serve the distribution's Core Metadata file alongside the distribution with a .metadata appended to the distribution's file name. For example, the Core Metadata of a distribution served at /files/distribution-1.0-py3.none.any.whl would be located at /files/distribution-1.0-py3.none.any.whl.metadata. This is similar to how the base HTML API specification specifies the GPG signature file's location.

The repository SHOULD provide the hash of the Core Metadata file as the data-dist-info-metadata attribute's value using the syntax <hashname>=<hashvalue>, where <hashname> is the lower cased name of the hash function used, and <hashvalue> is the hex encoded digest. The repository MAY use true as the attribute's value if a hash is unavailable.

Backwards Compatibility#

If an anchor tag lacks the data-dist-info-metadata attribute, tools are expected to revert to their current behaviour of downloading the distribution to inspect the metadata.

Older tools not supporting the new data-dist-info-metadata attribute are expected to ignore the attribute and maintain their current behaviour of downloading the distribution to inspect the metadata. This is similar to how prior data- attribute additions expect existing tools to operate.

JSON-based Simple API for Python Package Indexes#

To enable response parsing with only the standard library, this spec specifies that all responses (besides the files themselves, and the HTML responses from the base HTML API specification) should be serialized using JSON.

To enable zero configuration discovery and to minimize the amount of additional HTTP requests, this spec extends the base HTML API specification such that all of the API endpoints (other than the files themselves) will utilize HTTP content negotiation to allow client and server to select the correct serialization format to serve, i.e. either HTML or JSON.

バージョニング#

Versioning will adhere to the API versioning specification format (Major.Minor), which has defined the existing HTML responses to be 1.0. Since this spec does not introduce new features into the API, rather it describes a different serialization format for the existing features, this spec does not change the existing 1.0 version, and instead just describes how to serialize that into JSON.

Similar to the API versioning specification, the major version number MUST be incremented if any changes to the new format would result in no longer being able to expect existing clients to meaningfully understand the format.

Likewise, the minor version MUST be incremented if features are added or removed from the format, but existing clients would be expected to continue to meaningfully understand the format.

Changes that would not result in existing clients being unable to meaningfully understand the format and which do not represent features being added or removed may occur without changing the version number.

This is intentionally vague, as this spec believes it is best left up to future specs that make any changes to the API to investigate and decide whether or not that change should increment the major or minor version.

Future versions of the API may add things that can only be represented in a subset of the available serializations of that version. All serializations version numbers, within a major version, SHOULD be kept in sync, but the specifics of how a feature serializes into each format may differ, including whether or not that feature is present at all.

It is the intent of this spec that the API should be thought of as URL endpoints that return data, whose interpretation is defined by the version of that data, and then serialized into the target serialization format.

JSON Serialization#

The URL structure from the base HTML API specification still applies, as this spec only adds an additional serialization format for the already existing API.

The following constraints apply to all JSON serialized responses described in this spec:

  • All JSON responses will always be a JSON object rather than an array or other type.

  • While JSON doesn't natively support an URL type, any value that represents an URL in this API may be either absolute or relative as long as they point to the correct location. If relative, they are relative to the current URL as if it were HTML.

  • Additional keys may be added to any dictionary objects in the API responses and clients MUST ignore keys that they don't understand.

  • All JSON responses will have a meta key, which contains information related to the response itself, rather than the content of the response.

  • All JSON responses will have a meta.api-version key, which will be a string that contains the API versioning specification Major.Minor version number, with the same fail/warn semantics as defined in the API versioning specification.

  • All requirements of the base HTML API specification that are not HTML specific still apply.

Project List#

The root URL / for this spec (which represents the base URL) will be a JSON encoded dictionary which has a two keys:

  • projects: An array where each entry is a dictionary with a single key, name, which represents string of the project name.

  • meta: The general response metadata as described earlier.

As an example:

{
  "meta": {
    "api-version": "1.0"
  },
  "projects": [
    {"name": "Frob"},
    {"name": "spamspamspam"}
  ]
}

注釈

The name field is the same as the one from the base HTML API specification, which does not specify whether it is the non-normalized display name or the normalized name. In practice different implementations of these specs are choosing differently here, so relying on it being either non-normalized or normalized is relying on an implementation detail of the repository in question.

注釈

While the projects key is an array, and thus is required to be in some kind of an order, neither the base HTML API specification nor this spec requires any specific ordering nor that the ordering is consistent from one request to the next. Mentally this is best thought of as a set, but both JSON and HTML lack the functionality to have sets.

Project Detail#

The format of this URL is /<project>/ where the <project> is replaced by the the base HTML API specification normalized name for that project, so a project named "Silly_Walk" would have a URL like /silly-walk/.

This URL must respond with a JSON encoded dictionary that has three keys:

  • name: The normalized name of the project.

  • files: A list of dictionaries, each one representing an individual file.

  • meta: The general response metadata as described earlier.

Each individual file dictionary has the following keys:

  • filename: The filename that is being represented.

  • url: The URL that the file can be fetched from.

  • hashes: A dictionary mapping a hash name to a hex encoded digest of the file. Multiple hashes can be included, and it is up to the client to decide what to do with multiple hashes (it may validate all of them or a subset of them, or nothing at all). These hash names SHOULD always be normalized to be lowercase.

    The hashes dictionary MUST be present, even if no hashes are available for the file, however it is HIGHLY recommended that at least one secure, guaranteed-to-be-available hash is always included.

    By default, any hash algorithm available via hashlib (specifically any that can be passed to hashlib.new() and do not require additional parameters) can be used as a key for the hashes dictionary. At least one secure algorithm from hashlib.algorithms_guaranteed SHOULD always be included. At the time of this spec, sha256 specifically is recommended.

  • requires-python: An optional key that exposes the Requires-Python metadata field. Where this is present, installer tools SHOULD ignore the download when installing to a Python version that doesn't satisfy the requirement.

    Unlike data-requires-python in the base HTML API specification, the requires-python key does not require any special escaping other than anything JSON does naturally.

  • dist-info-metadata: An optional key that indicates that metadata for this file is available, via the same location as specified in the API metadata file specification ({file_url}.metadata). Where this is present, it MUST be either a boolean to indicate if the file has an associated metadata file, or a dictionary mapping hash names to a hex encoded digest of the metadata's hash.

    When this is a dictionary of hashes instead of a boolean, then all the same requirements and recommendations as the hashes key hold true for this key as well.

    If this key is missing then the metadata file may or may not exist. If the key value is truthy, then the metadata file is present, and if it is falsey then it is not.

    It is recommended that servers make the hashes of the metadata file available if possible.

  • gpg-sig: An optional key that acts a boolean to indicate if the file has an associated GPG signature or not. The URL for the signature file follows what is specified in the base HTML API specification ({file_url}.asc). If this key does not exist, then the signature may or may not exist.

  • yanked: An optional key which may be either a boolean to indicate if the file has been yanked, or a non empty, but otherwise arbitrary, string to indicate that a file has been yanked with a specific reason. If the yanked key is present and is a truthy value, then it SHOULD be interpreted as indicating that the file pointed to by the url field has been "Yanked" as per the API yank specification.

As an example:

{
  "meta": {
    "api-version": "1.0"
  },
  "name": "holygrail",
  "files": [
    {
      "filename": "holygrail-1.0.tar.gz",
      "url": "https://example.com/files/holygrail-1.0.tar.gz",
      "hashes": {"sha256": "...", "blake2b": "..."},
      "requires-python": ">=3.7",
      "yanked": "Had a vulnerability"
    },
    {
      "filename": "holygrail-1.0-py3-none-any.whl",
      "url": "https://example.com/files/holygrail-1.0-py3-none-any.whl",
      "hashes": {"sha256": "...", "blake2b": "..."},
      "requires-python": ">=3.7",
      "dist-info-metadata": true
    }
  ]
}

注釈

While the files key is an array, and thus is required to be in some kind of an order, neither the base HTML API specification nor this spec requires any specific ordering nor that the ordering is consistent from one request to the next. Mentally this is best thought of as a set, but both JSON and HTML lack the functionality to have sets.

Content-Types#

This spec proposes that all responses from the Simple API will have a standard content type that describes what the response is (a Simple API response), what version of the API it represents, and what serialization format has been used.

The structure of this content type will be:

application/vnd.pypi.simple.$version+format

Since only major versions should be disruptive to clients attempting to understand one of these API responses, only the major version will be included in the content type, and will be prefixed with a v to clarify that it is a version number.

Which means that for the existing 1.0 API, the content types would be:

  • JSON: application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+json

  • HTML: application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+html

In addition to the above, a special "meta" version is supported named latest, whose purpose is to allow clients to request the absolute latest version, without having to know ahead of time what that version is. It is recommended however, that clients be explicit about what versions they support.

To support existing clients which expect the existing the base HTML API specification API responses to use the text/html content type, this spec further defines text/html as an alias for the application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+html content type.

Version + Format Selection#

Now that there is multiple possible serializations, we need a mechanism to allow clients to indicate what serialization formats they're able to understand. In addition, it would be beneficial if any possible new major version to the API can be added without disrupting existing clients expecting the previous API version.

To enable this, this spec standardizes on the use of HTTP's Server-Driven Content Negotiation.

While this spec won't fully describe the entirety of server-driven content negotiation, the flow is roughly:

  1. The client makes an HTTP request containing an Accept header listing all of the version+format content types that they are able to understand.

  2. The server inspects that header, selects one of the listed content types, then returns a response using that content type (treating the absence of an Accept header as Accept: */*).

  3. If the server does not support any of the content types in the Accept header then they are able to choose between 3 different options for how to respond:

    1. Select a default content type other than what the client has requested and return a response with that.

    2. Return a HTTP 406 Not Acceptable response to indicate that none of the requested content types were available, and the server was unable or unwilling to select a default content type to respond with.

    3. Return a HTTP 300 Multiple Choices response that contains a list of all of the possible responses that could have been chosen.

  4. The client interprets the response, handling the different types of responses that the server may have responded with.

This spec does not specify which choices the server makes in regards to handling a content type that it isn't able to return, and clients SHOULD be prepared to handle all of the possible responses in whatever way makes the most sense for that client.

However, as there is no standard format for how a 300 Multiple Choices response can be interpreted, this spec highly discourages servers from utilizing that option, as clients will have no way to understand and select a different content-type to request. In addition, it's unlikely that the client could understand a different content type anyways, so at best this response would likely just be treated the same as a 406 Not Acceptable error.

This spec does require that if the meta version latest is being used, the server MUST respond with the content type for the actual version that is contained in the response (i.e. A Accept: application/vnd.pypi.simple.latest+json request that returns a v1.x response should have a Content-Type of application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+json).

The Accept header is a comma separated list of content types that the client understands and is able to process. It supports three different formats for each content type that is being requested:

  • $type/$subtype

  • $type/*

  • */*

For the use of selecting a version+format, the most useful of these is $type/$subtype, as that is the only way to actually specify the version and format you want.

The order of the content types listed in the Accept header does not have any specific meaning, and the server SHOULD consider all of them to be equally valid to respond with. If a client wishes to specify that they prefer a specific content type over another, they may use the Accept header's quality value syntax.

This allows a client to specify a priority for a specific entry in their Accept header, by appending a ;q= followed by a value between 0 and 1 inclusive, with up to 3 decimal digits. When interpreting this value, an entry with a higher quality has priority over an entry with a lower quality, and any entry without a quality present will default to a quality of 1.

However, clients should keep in mind that a server is free to select any of the content types they've asked for, regardless of their requested priority, and it may even return a content type that they did not ask for.

To aid clients in determining the content type of the response that they have received from an API request, this spec requires that servers always include a Content-Type header indicating the content type of the response. This is technically a backwards incompatible change, however in practice pip has been enforcing this requirement so the risks for actual breakages is low.

An example of how a client can operate would look like:

import email.message
import requests

def parse_content_type(header: str) -> str:
    m = email.message.Message()
    m["content-type"] = header
    return m.get_content_type()

# Construct our list of acceptable content types, we want to prefer
# that we get a v1 response serialized using JSON, however we also
# can support a v1 response serialized using HTML. For compatibility
# we also request text/html, but we prefer it least of all since we
# don't know if it's actually a Simple API response, or just some
# random HTML page that we've gotten due to a misconfiguration.
CONTENT_TYPES = [
    "application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+json",
    "application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+html;q=0.2",
    "text/html;q=0.01",  # For legacy compatibility
]
ACCEPT = ", ".join(CONTENT_TYPES)


# Actually make our request to the API, requesting all of the content
# types that we find acceptable, and letting the server select one of
# them out of the list.
resp = requests.get("https://pypi.org/simple/", headers={"Accept": ACCEPT})

# If the server does not support any of the content types you requested,
# AND it has chosen to return a HTTP 406 error instead of a default
# response then this will raise an exception for the 406 error.
resp.raise_for_status()


# Determine what kind of response we've gotten to ensure that it is one
# that we can support, and if it is, dispatch to a function that will
# understand how to interpret that particular version+serialization. If
# we don't understand the content type we've gotten, then we'll raise
# an exception.
content_type = parse_content_type(resp.headers.get("content-type", ""))
match content_type:
    case "application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+json":
        handle_v1_json(resp)
    case "application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+html" | "text/html":
        handle_v1_html(resp)
    case _:
        raise Exception(f"Unknown content type: {content_type}")

If a client wishes to only support HTML or only support JSON, then they would just remove the content types that they do not want from the Accept header, and turn receiving them into an error.

Alternative Negotiation Mechanisms#

While using HTTP's Content negotiation is considered the standard way for a client and server to coordinate to ensure that the client is getting an HTTP response that it is able to understand, there are situations where that mechanism may not be sufficient. For those cases this spec has alternative negotiation mechanisms that may optionally be used instead.

URL Parameter#

Servers that implement the Simple API may choose to support an URL parameter named format to allow the clients to request a specific version of the URL.

The value of the format parameter should be one of the valid content types. Passing multiple content types, wild cards, quality values, etc... is not supported.

Supporting this parameter is optional, and clients SHOULD NOT rely on it for interacting with the API. This negotiation mechanism is intended to allow for easier human based exploration of the API within a browser, or to allow documentation or notes to link to a specific version+format.

Servers that do not support this parameter may choose to return an error when it is present, or they may simple ignore its presence.

When a server does implement this parameter, it SHOULD take precedence over any values in the client's Accept header, and if the server does not support the requested format, it may choose to fall back to the Accept header, or choose any of the error conditions that standard server-driven content negotiation typically has (e.g. 406 Not Available, 303 Multiple Choices, or selecting a default type to return).

Endpoint Configuration#

This option technically is not a special option at all, it is just a natural consequence of using content negotiation and allowing servers to select which of the available content types is their default.

If a server is unwilling or unable to implement the server-driven content negotiation, and would instead rather require users to explicitly configure their client to select the version they want, then that is a supported configuration.

To enable this, a server should make multiple endpoints (for instance, /simple/v1+html/ and/or /simple/v1+json/) for each version+format that they wish to support. Under that endpoint, they can host a copy of their repository that only supports one (or a subset) of the content-types. When a client makes a request using the Accept header, the server can ignore it and return the content type that corresponds to that endpoint.

For clients that wish to require specific configuration, they can keep track of which version+format a specific repository URL was configured for, and when making a request to that server, emit an Accept header that only includes the correct content type.

TUF Support - PEP 458#

PEP 458 requires that all API responses are hashable and that they can be uniquely identified by a path relative to the repository root. For a Simple API repository, the target path is the Root of our API (e.g. /simple/ on PyPI). This creates challenges when accessing the API using a TUF client instead of directly using a standard HTTP client, as the TUF client cannot handle the fact that a target could have multiple different representations that all hash differently.

PEP 458 does not specify what the target path should be for the Simple API, but TUF requires that the target paths be "file-like", in other words, a path like simple/PROJECT/ is not acceptable, because it technically points to a directory.

The saving grace is that the target path does not have to actually match the URL being fetched from the Simple API, and it can just be a sigil that the fetching code knows how to transform into the actual URL that needs to be fetched. This same thing can hold true for other aspects of the actual HTTP request, such as the Accept header.

Ultimately figuring out how to map a directory to a filename is out of scope for this spec (but it would be in scope for PEP 458), and this spec defers making a decision about how exactly to represent this inside of PEP 458 metadata.

However, it appears that the current WIP branch against pip that attempts to implement PEP 458 is using a target path like simple/PROJECT/index.html. This could be modified to include the API version and serialization format using something like simple/PROJECT/vnd.pypi.simple.vN.FORMAT. So the v1 HTML format would be simple/PROJECT/vnd.pypi.simple.v1.html and the v1 JSON format would be simple/PROJECT/vnd.pypi.simple.v1.json.

In this case, since text/html is an alias to application/vnd.pypi.simple.v1+html when interacting through TUF, it likely will make the most sense to normalize to the more explicit name.

Likewise the latest metaversion should not be included in the targets, only explicitly declared versions should be supported.

Recommendations#

This section is non-normative, and represents what the spec authors believe to be the best default implementation decisions for something implementing this spec, but it does not represent any sort of requirement to match these decisions.

These decisions have been chosen to maximize the number of requests that can be moved onto the newest version of an API, while maintaining the greatest amount of compatibility. In addition, they've also tried to make using the API provide guardrails that attempt to push clients into making the best choices it can.

It is recommended that servers:

  • Support all 3 content types described in this spec, using server-driven content negotiation, for as long as they reasonably can, or at least as long as they're receiving non trivial traffic that uses the HTML responses.

  • When encountering an Accept header that does not contain any content types that it knows how to work with, the server should not ever return a 300 Multiple Choice response, and instead return a 406 Not Acceptable response.

    • However, if choosing to use the endpoint configuration, you should prefer to return a 200 OK response in the expected content type for that endpoint.

  • When selecting an acceptable version, the server should choose the highest version that the client supports, with the most expressive/featureful serialization format, taking into account the specificity of the client requests as well as any quality priority values they have expressed, and it should only use the text/html content type as a last resort.

It is recommended that clients:

  • Support all 3 content types described in this spec, using server-driven content negotiation, for as long as they reasonably can.

  • When constructing an Accept header, include all of the content types that you support.

    You should generally not include a quality priority value for your content types, unless you have implementation specific reasons that you want the server to take into account (for example, if you're using the standard library HTML parser and you're worried that there may be some kinds of HTML responses that you're unable to parse in some edge cases).

    The one exception to this recommendation is that it is recommended that you should include a ;q=0.01 value on the legacy text/html content type, unless it is the only content type that you are requesting.

  • Explicitly select what versions they are looking for, rather than using the latest meta version during normal operation.

  • Check the Content-Type of the response and ensure it matches something that you were expecting.

Additional Fields for the Simple API for Package Indexes#

This specification defines version 1.1 of the simple repository API. For the HTML version of the API, there is no change from version 1.0. For the JSON version of the API, the following changes are made:

  • The api-version must specify version 1.1 or later.

  • A new versions key is added at the top level.

  • Two new "file information" keys, size and upload-time, are added to the files data.

  • Keys (at any level) with a leading underscore are reserved as private for index server use. No future standard will assign a meaning to any such key.

The versions and size keys are mandatory. The upload-time key is optional.

バージョン指定子#

An additional key, versions MUST be present at the top level, in addition to the keys name, files and meta defined in the JSON API specification. This key MUST contain a list of version strings specifying all of the project versions uploaded for this project. The value is logically a set, and as such may not contain duplicates, and the order of the values is not significant.

All of the files listed in the files key MUST be associated with one of the versions in the versions key. The versions key MAY contain versions with no associated files (to represent versions with no files uploaded, if the server has such a concept).

Note that because servers may hold "legacy" data from before the adoption of the version specifiers specification (VSS), version strings currently cannot be required to be valid VSS versions, and therefore cannot be assumed to be orderable using the VSS rules. However, servers SHOULD use normalised VSS versions where possible.

Additional file information#

Two new keys are added to the files key.

  • size: This field is mandatory. It MUST contain an integer which is the file size in bytes.

  • upload-time: This field is optional. If present, it MUST contain a valid ISO 8601 date/time string, in the format yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.ffffffZ, which represents the time the file was uploaded to the index. As indicated by the Z suffix, the upload time MUST use the UTC timezone. The fractional seconds part of the timestamp (the .ffffff part) is optional, and if present may contain up to 6 digits of precision. If a server does not record upload time information for a file, it MAY omit the upload-time key.

Rename dist-info-metadata in the Simple API#

The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL"" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

Servers#

The the API metadata file specification metadata, when used in the HTML representation of the Simple API, MUST be emitted using the attribute name data-core-metadata, with the supported values remaining the same.

The the API metadata file specification metadata, when used in the the JSON API specification JSON representation of the Simple API, MUST be emitted using the key core-metadata, with the supported values remaining the same.

To support clients that used the previous key names, the HTML representation MAY also be emitted using the data-dist-info-metadata, and if it does so it MUST match the value of data-core-metadata.

Clients#

Clients consuming any of the HTML representations of the Simple API MUST read the the API metadata file specification metadata from the key data-core-metadata if it is present. They MAY optionally use the legacy data-dist-info-metadata if it is present but data-core-metadata is not.

Clients consuming the JSON representation of the Simple API MUST read the the API metadata file specification metadata from the key core-metadata if it is present. They MAY optionally use the legacy dist-info-metadata key if it is present but core-metadata is not.

歴史#

  • September 2015: initial form of the HTML format, in PEP 503

  • July 2016: Requires-Python metadata, in an update to PEP 503

  • May 2019: "yank" support, in PEP 592

  • July 2020: API versioning convention and metadata, and declaring the HTML format as API v1, in PEP 629

  • May 2021: providing package metadata independently from a package, in PEP 658

  • May 2022: initial form of the JSON format, with a mechanism for clients to choose between them, and declaring both formats as API v1, in PEP 691

  • October 2022: project versions and file size and upload-time in the JSON format, in PEP 700

  • June 2023: renaming the field which provides package metadata independently from a package, in PEP 714