Publishing package distribution releases using GitHub Actions CI/CD workflows

GitHub Actions CI/CD allows you to run a series of commands whenever an event occurs on the GitHub platform. One popular choice is having a workflow that’s triggered by a push event. This guide shows you how to publish a Python distribution whenever a tagged commit is pushed. It will use the pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish GitHub Action.


This guide assumes that you already have a project that you know how to build distributions for and it lives on GitHub. This guide also avoids details of building platform specific projects. If you have binary components, check out cibuildwheel’s GitHub Action examples.

Saving credentials on GitHub

In this guide, we’ll demonstrate uploading to both PyPI and TestPyPI, meaning that we’ll have two separate sets of credentials. And we’ll need to save them in the GitHub repository settings.

Let’s begin! 🚀

  1. Go to and create a new API token. If you have the project on PyPI already, limit the token scope to just that project. You can call it something like GitHub Actions CI/CD project-org/project-repo in order for it to be easily distinguishable in the token list. Don’t close the page just yet — you won’t see that token again.

  2. In a separate browser tab or window, go to the Settings tab of your target repository and then click on Secrets in the left sidebar.

  3. Create a new secret called PYPI_API_TOKEN and copy-paste the token from the first step.

  4. Now, go to and repeat the steps. Save that TestPyPI token on GitHub as TEST_PYPI_API_TOKEN.


    If you don’t have a TestPyPI account, you’ll need to create it. It’s not the same as a regular PyPI account.

Creating a workflow definition

GitHub CI/CD workflows are declared in YAML files stored in the .github/workflows/ directory of your repository.

Let’s create a .github/workflows/publish-to-test-pypi.yml file.

Start it with a meaningful name and define the event that should make GitHub run this workflow:

name: Publish Python 🐍 distributions 📦 to PyPI and TestPyPI

on: push

Defining a workflow job environment

Now, let’s add initial setup for our job. It’s a process that will execute commands that we’ll define later. In this guide, we’ll use the latest stable Ubuntu LTS version provided by GitHub Actions:

    name: Build and publish Python 🐍 distributions 📦 to PyPI and TestPyPI
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest

Checking out the project and building distributions

Then, add the following under the build-n-publish section:

    - uses: actions/checkout@v3
    - name: Set up Python
      uses: actions/setup-python@v4
        python-version: "3.x"

This will download your repository into the CI runner and then install and activate Python 3.10.

And now we can build dists from source. In this example, we’ll use build package.


You can use any other method for building distributions as long as it produces ready-to-upload artifacts saved into the dist/ folder. You can even use actions/upload-artifact and actions/download-artifact to tranfer files between jobs or make them accessable for download from the web CI interface.

So add this to the steps list:

    - name: Install pypa/build
      run: >-
        python -m
        pip install
    - name: Build a binary wheel and a source tarball
      run: >-
        python -m
        --outdir dist/

Publishing the distribution to PyPI and TestPyPI

Finally, add the following steps at the end:

    - name: Publish distribution 📦 to Test PyPI
      uses: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@release/v1
        password: ${{ secrets.TEST_PYPI_API_TOKEN }}
    - name: Publish distribution 📦 to PyPI
      if: startsWith(github.ref, 'refs/tags')
      uses: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@release/v1
        password: ${{ secrets.PYPI_API_TOKEN }}

These two steps use the pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish GitHub Action: the first one uploads contents of the dist/ folder into TestPyPI unconditionally and the second does that to PyPI, but only if the current commit is tagged. It is recommended you use the latest release tag; a tool like GitHub’s dependabot can keep these updated regularly.

That’s all, folks!

Now, whenever you push a tagged commit to your Git repository remote on GitHub, this workflow will publish it to PyPI. And it’ll publish any push to TestPyPI which is useful for providing test builds to your alpha users as well as making sure that your release pipeline remains healthy!