Setuptools is perfectly usable as a build backend
for packaging Python projects.
setup.py is a valid configuration file for Setuptools
that happens to be written in Python, instead of in TOML for example
(a similar practice is used by other tools
like nox and its
nox.py configuration file,
or pytest and
python setup.py and the use of
as a command line tool are deprecated.
This means that commands such as the following MUST NOT be run anymore:
python setup.py install
python setup.py develop
python setup.py sdist
python setup.py bdist_wheel
What commands should be used instead?#
In order to install a setuptools based project,
it was common to run
install command such as:
python setup.py install.
Nowadays, the recommended method is to use pip directly
with a command like this one:
python -m pip install ..
Where the dot
. is actually a file system path,
it is the path notation for the current directory.
Indeed, pip accepts a path to
a project’s source tree directory on the local filesystem
as argument to its
So this would also be a valid command:
python -m pip install path/to/project.
As for the installation in develop mode aka editable mode,
python setup.py develop
one can use the
--editable option of pip’s install sub-command:
python -m pip install --editable ..
One recommended, simple, and straightforward method of building
is to use the build tool with a command like
python -m build
which triggers the generation of both distribution formats.
If necessary the
--wheel options can be used
to generate only one or the other.
Note that the build tool needs to be installed separately.
python setup.py install was deprecated
in setuptools version 58.3.0.
What about other commands?#
What are some replacements for the other
python setup.py commands?
python setup.py test#
The recommendation is to use a test runner such as pytest.
python setup.py check,
python setup.py register, and
python setup.py upload#
A trusted replacement is twine:
python -m twine check
python -m twine register
python -m twine upload
python setup.py --version#
A possible replacement solution (among others) is to rely on setuptools-scm:
python -m setuptools-scm
This guide does not make suggestions of replacement solutions for those commands:
What about custom commands?#
setup.py commands are deprecated.
The recommendation is to migrate those custom commands
to a task runner tool or any other similar tool.
Some examples of such tools are:
chuy, make, nox or tox, pydoit, pyinvoke, taskipy, and thx.
What about custom build steps?#
Custom build steps that for example
either overwrite existing steps such as
or add new build steps are not deprecated.
Those will be automatically called as expected.
setup.py be deleted?#
Although the usage of
setup.py as an executable script is deprecated,
its usage as a configuration file for setuptools is absolutely fine.
There is likely no modification needed in
While it is not technically necessary yet,
it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED for a project to have a
at the root of its source tree with a content like this:
[build-system] requires = ["setuptools"] build-backend = "setuptools.build_meta"
The guide How to modernize a setup.py based project? has more details about this.
Why? What does it all mean?#
One way to look at it is that the scope of setuptools has now been reduced to the role of a build backend.