Ambiente gerenciado externamente#

Embora algumas instalações do Python sejam totalmente gerenciadas pelo usuário que instalou o Python, outras podem ser fornecidas e gerenciadas por outros meios (como o gerenciador de pacotes do sistema operacional em uma distribuição Linux ou como um ambiente integrado Python em um aplicativo com um instalador dedicado).

A tentativa de usar ferramentas de empacotamento convencionais Python para manipular esses ambientes pode ser confusa, na melhor das hipóteses, e, na pior das hipóteses, quebrar completamente todo o sistema operacional subjacente. Os guias de documentação e interoperabilidade passam longe da resolução de tais problemas.

This specification defines an EXTERNALLY-MANAGED marker file that allows a Python installation to indicate to Python-specific tools such as pip that they neither install nor remove packages into the interpreter’s default installation environment, and should instead guide the end user towards using Python Virtual Environments.

It also standardizes an interpretation of the sysconfig schemes so that, if a Python-specific package manager is about to install a package in an interpreter-wide context, it can do so in a manner that will avoid conflicting with the external package manager and reduces the risk of breaking software shipped by the external package manager.


A few terms used in this specification have multiple meanings in the contexts that it spans. For clarity, this specification uses the following terms in specific ways:


Short for “distribution,” a collection of various sorts of software, ideally designed to work properly together, including (in contexts relevant to this document) the Python interpreter itself, software written in Python, and software written in other languages. That is, this is the sense used in phrases such as “Linux distro” or “Berkeley Software Distribution.”

A distro can be an operating system (OS) of its own, such as Debian, Fedora, or FreeBSD. It can also be an overlay distribution that installs on top of an existing OS, such as Homebrew or MacPorts.

This document uses the short term “distro,” because the term “distribution” has another meaning in Python packaging contexts: a source or binary distribution package of a single piece of Python language software, that is, in the sense of setuptools.dist.Distribution or “sdist”. To avoid confusion, this document does not use the plain term “distribution” at all. In the Python packaging sense, it uses the full phrase “distribution package” or just “package” (see below).

The provider of a distro - the team or company that collects and publishes the software and makes any needed modifications - is its distributor.


A unit of software that can be installed and used within Python. That is, this refers to what Python-specific packaging tools tend to call a distribution package or simply a “distribution”; the colloquial abbreviation “package” is used in the sense of the Python Package Index.

This document does not use “package” in the sense of an importable name that contains Python modules, though in many cases, a distribution package consists of a single importable package of the same name.

This document generally does not use the term “package” to refer to units of installation by a distro’s package manager (such as .deb or .rpm files). When needed, it uses phrasing such as “a distro’s package.” (Again, in many cases, a Python package is shipped inside a distro’s package named something like python- plus the Python package name.)

Python-specific package manager

A tool for installing, upgrading, and/or removing Python packages in a manner that conforms to Python packaging standards. The most popular Python-specific package manager is pip; other examples include the old Easy Install command as well as direct usage of a command.

(Note that the easy_install command was removed in setuptools version 52, released 23 January 2021.)

(Conda is a bit of a special case, as the conda command can install much more than just Python packages, making it more like a distro package manager in some senses. Since the conda command generally only operates on Conda-created environments, most of the concerns in this document do not apply to conda when acting as a Python-specific package manager.)

distro package manager

A tool for installing, upgrading, and/or removing a distro’s packages in an installed instance of that distro, which is capable of installing Python packages as well as non-Python packages, and therefore generally has its own database of installed software unrelated to the database of installed distributions. Examples include apt, dpkg, dnf, rpm, pacman, and brew. The salient feature is that if a package was installed by a distro package manager, removing or upgrading it in a way that would satisfy a Python-specific package manager will generally leave a distro package manager in an inconsistent state.

This document also uses phrases like “external package manager” or “system’s package manager” to refer to a distro package manager in certain contexts.


To shadow an installed Python package is to cause some other package to be preferred for imports without removing any files from the shadowed package. This requires multiple entries on sys.path: if package A 2.0 installs module in one sys.path entry, and package A 1.0 installs module in a later sys.path entry, then import a returns the module from the former, and we say that A 2.0 shadows A 1.0.

Visão geral#

This specification is twofold.

First, it describes a way for distributors of a Python interpreter to mark that interpreter as having its packages managed by means external to Python, such that Python-specific tools like pip should not change the installed packages in the interpreter’s global sys.path in any way (add, upgrade/downgrade, or remove) unless specifically overridden. It also provides a means for the distributor to indicate how to use a virtual environment as an alternative.

This is an opt-in mechanism: by default, the Python interpreter compiled from upstream sources will not be so marked, and so running pip install with a self-compiled interpreter, or with a distro that has not explicitly marked its interpreter, will work as it always has worked.

Second, it sets the rule that when installing packages to an interpreter’s global context (either to an unmarked interpreter, or if overriding the marking), Python-specific package managers should modify or delete files only within the directories of the sysconfig scheme in which they would create files. This permits a distributor of a Python interpreter to set up two directories, one for its own managed packages, and one for unmanaged packages installed by the end user, and ensure that installing unmanaged packages will not delete (or overwrite) files owned by the external package manager.

Marking an interpreter as using an external package manager#

Before a Python-specific package installer (that is, a tool such as pip - not an external tool such as apt) installs a package into a certain Python context, it should make the following checks by default:

  1. Is it running outside of a virtual environment? It can determine this by whether sys.prefix == sys.base_prefix.

  2. Is there an EXTERNALLY-MANAGED file in the directory identified by sysconfig.get_path("stdlib", sysconfig.get_default_scheme())?

If both of these conditions are true, the installer should exit with an error message indicating that package installation into this Python interpreter’s directory are disabled outside of a virtual environment.

The installer should have a way for the user to override these rules, such as a command-line flag --break-system-packages. This option should not be enabled by default and should carry some connotation that its use is risky.

The EXTERNALLY-MANAGED file is an INI-style metadata file intended to be parsable by the standard library configparser module. If the file can be parsed by configparser.ConfigParser(interpolation=None) using the UTF-8 encoding, and it contains a section [externally-managed], then the installer should look for an error message specified in the file and output it as part of its error. If the first element of the tuple returned by locale.getlocale(locale.LC_MESSAGES), i.e., the language code, is not None, it should look for the error message as the value of a key named Error- followed by the language code. If that key does not exist, and if the language code contains underscore or hyphen, it should look for a key named Error- followed by the portion of the language code before the underscore or hyphen. If it cannot find either of those, or if the language code is None, it should look for a key simply named Error.

If the installer cannot find an error message in the file (either because the file cannot be parsed or because no suitable error key exists), then the installer should just use a pre-defined error message of its own, which should suggest that the user create a virtual environment to install packages.

Software distributors who have a non-Python-specific package manager that manages libraries in the sys.path of their Python package should, in general, ship a EXTERNALLY-MANAGED file in their standard library directory. For instance, Debian may ship a file in /usr/lib/python3.9/EXTERNALLY-MANAGED consisting of something like

Error=To install Python packages system-wide, try apt install
 python3-xyz, where xyz is the package you are trying to

 If you wish to install a non-Debian-packaged Python package,
 create a virtual environment using python3 -m venv path/to/venv.
 Then use path/to/venv/bin/python and path/to/venv/bin/pip. Make
 sure you have python3-full installed.

 If you wish to install a non-Debian packaged Python application,
 it may be easiest to use pipx install xyz, which will manage a
 virtual environment for you. Make sure you have pipx installed.

 See /usr/share/doc/python3.9/README.venv for more information.

which provides useful and distro-relevant information to a user trying to install a package. Optionally, translations can be provided in the same file:

Error-de_DE=Wenn ist das Nunstück git und Slotermeyer?

 Ja! Beiherhund das Oder die Virtualenvironment gersput!

In certain contexts, such as single-application container images that aren’t updated after creation, a distributor may choose not to ship an EXTERNALLY-MANAGED file, so that users can install whatever they like (as they can today) without having to manually override this rule.

Writing to only the target sysconfig scheme#

Usually, a Python package installer installs to directories in a scheme returned by the sysconfig standard library package. Ordinarily, this is the scheme returned by sysconfig.get_default_scheme(), but based on configuration (e.g. pip install --user), it may use a different scheme.

Whenever the installer is installing to a sysconfig scheme, this specification declares that the installer should never modify or delete files outside of that scheme. For instance, if it’s upgrading a package, and the package is already installed in a directory outside that scheme (perhaps in a directory from another scheme), it should leave the existing files alone.

If the installer does end up shadowing an existing installation during an upgrade, we recommend that it produces a warning at the end of its run.

If the installer is installing to a location outside of a sysconfig scheme (e.g., pip install --target), then this subsection does not apply.

Recommendations for distros#

This section is non-normative. It provides best practices we believe distros should follow unless they have a specific reason otherwise.

Mark the installation as externally managed#

Distros should create an EXTERNALLY-MANAGED file in their stdlib directory.

Guide users towards virtual environments#

The file should contain a useful and distro-relevant error message indicating both how to install system-wide packages via the distro’s package manager and how to set up a virtual environment. If your distro is often used by users in a state where the python3 command is available (and especially where pip or get-pip is available) but python3 -m venv does not work, the message should indicate clearly how to make python3 -m venv work properly.

Consider packaging pipx, a tool for installing Python-language applications, and suggesting it in the error. pipx automatically creates a virtual environment for that application alone, which is a much better default for end users who want to install some Python-language software (which isn’t available in the distro) but are not themselves Python users. Packaging pipx in the distro avoids the irony of instructing users to pip install --user --break-system-packages pipx to avoid breaking system packages. Consider arranging things so your distro’s package / environment for Python for end users (e.g., python3 on Fedora or python3-full on Debian) depends on pipx.

Keep the marker file in container images#

Distros that produce official images for single-application containers (e.g., Docker container images) should keep the EXTERNALLY-MANAGED file, preferably in a way that makes it not go away if a user of that image installs package updates inside their image (think RUN apt-get dist-upgrade).

Create separate distro and local directories#

Distros should place two separate paths on the system interpreter’s sys.path, one for distro-installed packages and one for packages installed by the local system administrator, and configure sysconfig.get_default_scheme() to point at the latter path. This ensures that tools like pip will not modify distro-installed packages. The path for the local system administrator should come before the distro path on sys.path so that local installs take preference over distro packages.

For example, Fedora and Debian (and their derivatives) both implement this split by using /usr/local for locally-installed packages and /usr for distro-installed packages. Fedora uses /usr/local/lib/python3.x/site-packages vs. /usr/lib/python3.x/site-packages. (Debian uses /usr/local/lib/python3/dist-packages vs. /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages as an additional layer of separation from a locally-compiled Python interpreter: if you build and install upstream CPython in /usr/local/bin, it will look at /usr/local/lib/python3/site-packages, and Debian wishes to make sure that packages installed via the locally-built interpreter don’t show up on sys.path for the distro interpreter.)

Note that the /usr/local vs. /usr split is analogous to how the PATH environment variable typically includes /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin and non-distro software installs to /usr/local by default. This split is recommended by the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.

There are two ways you could do this. One is, if you are building and packaging Python libraries directly (e.g., your packaging helpers unpack a wheel or call install), arrange for those tools to use a directory that is not in a sysconfig scheme but is still on sys.path.

The other is to arrange for the default sysconfig scheme to change when running inside a package build versus when running on an installed system. The sysconfig customization hooks from bpo-43976 should make this easy (once accepted and implemented): make your packaging tool set an environment variable or some other detectable configuration, and define a get_preferred_schemes function to return a different scheme when called from inside a package build. Then you can use pip install as part of your distro packaging.

We propose adding a --scheme=... option to instruct pip to run against a specific scheme. (See Implementation Notes below for how pip currently determines schemes.) Once that’s available, for local testing and possibly for actual packaging, you would be able to run something like pip install --scheme=posix_distro to explicitly install a package into your distro’s location (bypassing get_preferred_schemes). One could also, if absolutely needed, use pip uninstall --scheme=posix_distro to use pip to remove packages from the system-managed directory.

To install packages with pip, you would also need to either suppress the EXTERNALLY-MANAGED marker file to allow pip to run or to override it on the command line. You may want to use the same means for suppressing the marker file in build chroots as you do in container images.

The advantage of setting these up to be automatic (suppressing the marker file in your build environment and having get_preferred_schemes automatically return your distro’s scheme) is that an unadorned pip install will work inside a package build, which generally means that an unmodified upstream build script that happens to internally call pip install will do the right thing. You can, of course, just ensure that your packaging process always calls pip install --scheme=posix_distro --break-system-packages, which would work too.

The best approach here depends a lot on your distro’s conventions and mechanisms for packaging.

Similarly, the sysconfig paths that are not for importable Python code - that is, include, platinclude, scripts, and data - should also have two variants, one for use by distro-packaged software and one for use for locally-installed software, and the distro should be set up such that both are usable. For instance, a typical FHS-compliant distro will use /usr/local/include for the default scheme’s include and /usr/include for distro-packaged headers and place both on the compiler’s search path, and it will use /usr/local/bin for the default scheme’s scripts and /usr/bin for distro-packaged entry points and place both on $PATH.

Implementation Notes#

This section is non-normative and contains notes relevant to both the specification and potential implementations.

Currently (as of May 2021), pip does not directly expose a way to choose a target sysconfig scheme, but it has three ways of looking up schemes when installing:

pip install

Calls sysconfig.get_default_scheme(), which is usually (in upstream CPython and most current distros) the same as get_preferred_scheme('prefix').

pip install --prefix=/some/path

Calls sysconfig.get_preferred_scheme('prefix').

pip install --user

Calls sysconfig.get_preferred_scheme('user').

Finally, pip install --target=/some/path writes directly to /some/path without looking up any schemes.

Debian currently carries a patch to change the default install location inside a virtual environment, using a few heuristics (including checking for the VIRTUAL_ENV environment variable), largely so that the directory used in a virtual environment remains site-packages and not dist-packages. This does not particularly affect this proposal, because the implementation of that patch does not actually change the default sysconfig scheme, and notably does not change the result of sysconfig.get_path("stdlib").

Fedora currently carries a patch to change the default install location when not running inside rpmbuild, which they use to implement the two-system-wide-directories approach. This is conceptually the sort of hook envisioned by bpo-43976, except implemented as a code patch to distutils instead of as a changed sysconfig scheme.

The implementation of is_virtual_environment above, as well as the logic to load the EXTERNALLY-MANAGED file and find the error message from it, may as well get added to the standard library (sys and sysconfig, respectively), to centralize their implementations, but they don’t need to be added yet.


This specification was originally approved as PEP 668.